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Film stock is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures or animation. It is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side. Professional quality Nude Kids images and pictures at very affordable prices. With over 20 million stunning photos to choose from we’ve got what you need! Download romantic sexy couple nude stock photos. Affordable and search from millions of royalty free images, photos and vectors. Thousands of images added daily.
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Film stock is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures or animation. It is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side. Get Spain Nude Beach pictures and royalty-free images from iStock. Find high-quality stock photos that you won't find anywhere else. Professional quality Pregnant Nude images and pictures at very affordable prices. With over 20 million stunning photos to choose from we’ve got what you need!
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Film stock is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures or animation. It is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals. The sizes and other characteristics of the crystals determine the sensitivity, contrast and resolution of the film. Instead, a very short exposure to the image formed by a camera lens is used to produce only a very slight chemical change, proportional to the amount of light absorbed by each crystal.

This creates an invisible latent image in the emulsion, which can be chemically developed into a visible photograph. In addition to visible light, all films are sensitive to X-rays and high-energy particles. Most are at least slightly sensitive to invisible ultraviolet UV light. Some special-purpose films are sensitive into the infrared IR region of the spectrum. In black-and-white photographic film there is usually one layer of silver salts.

When the exposed grains are developed, the silver salts are converted to metallic silver, which blocks light and appears as the black part of the film negative. Color film has at least three sensitive layers. Dyes, which adsorb to the surface of the silver salts, make the crystals sensitive to different colors. Typically the blue-sensitive layer is on top, followed by the green and red layers.

During development, the exposed silver salts are converted to metallic silver, just as with black-and-white film. But in a color film, the by-products of the development reaction simultaneously combine with chemicals known as color couplers that are included either in the film itself or in the developer solution to form colored dyes. Because the by-products are created in direct proportion to the amount of exposure and development, the dye clouds formed are also in proportion to the exposure and development.

Following development, the silver is converted back to silver salts in the bleach step. It is removed from the film in the fix step. Fixing leaves behind only the formed color dyes, which combine to make up the colored visible image. Later color films, like Kodacolor II , have as many as 12 emulsion layers, [ citation needed ] with upwards of 20 different chemicals in each layer.

Early motion picture experiments in the s were performed using a fragile paper roll film, with which it was difficult to view a single, continuously moving image without a complex apparatus. The first transparent and flexible film base material was celluloid , which was discovered and refined for photographic use by John Carbutt , Hannibal Goodwin , and George Eastman.

The stock had a frosted base to facilitate easier viewing by transmitted light. Between and , Eastman experienced problems with production. Because of patent lawsuits in , Blair left his American company and established another in Britain. Eastman supplied Edison with film. By the new movie projector required a fully transparent film base that Blair's American operation could not supply. Eastman shortly thereafter bought the company out and became the leading supplier of film stock. Louis Lumiere worked with Victor Planchon to adapt the Lumiere "Blue Label" Etiquette Bleue photographic plate emulsion for use on celluloid roll film, which began in early Eastman's first motion picture film stock was offered in By , separate "Cine Type" films were offered.

If longer lengths were needed, the unexposed negative rolls could be cemented in a darkroom , but this was largely undesirable by most narrative filmmakers. The makers of Actuality films were much more eager to undertake this method, however, in order to depict longer actions, and created cemented rolls as long as feet. American Mutoscope and Biograph was the first known company to use this for the Jeffries - Sharkey fight on November 3, As the quantity of film and filmmakers grew, the demand for standardization increased.

Between and , film formats gradually became standardized and film stocks improved. A number of film gauges were made. Eastman increased the length of rolls to feet without major adjustments to the emulsion, retaining a large market share. Lumiere reformulated its stock to match the speed of Eastman film, naming it 'Etiquette Violette' Violet Label. Pathe began to supplement its operation in by purchasing film prints, stripping the emulsion from the film base and re-coating it. Consumers usually purchased unperforated film and had to punch it by perforators that were often imprecise, causing difficulty in making prints for the opposite perforation format.

In , the perforators began to be made by Bell and Howell. Eastman Kodak used the Bell and Howell's machine to perforate its films. In , Edison's organization of the Motion Picture Patents Trust agreed to what would become the standard: Agfa began to produce motion picture film in , but remained a largely local supplier until World War I boycotts of popular French, American and Italian film stocks allowed the UFA film studio to flourish, boosting Agfa's orders.

All film stocks were manufactured on a nitrate film base , which is highly flammable. Nitrate film fires were difficult to extinguish. A significant number of fatal accidents occurred in theatrical projection booths, where the heat of the projector lamp made ignition most likely. Amateur filmmaking home movies slowly developed during this period. Kodak developed a heat-resistant 'safety base' for home projection.

The plasticizers used to make the film flexible evaporated quickly, making the film dry and brittle, causing splices to part and perforations to tear. In the major American film studios returned to using nitrate stock. As both of these orthochromatic films were no faster than previous offerings; the improvements were in granularity and sharpness.

Film stock manufacturers began to diversify their products. Each manufacturer had previously offered one negative stock usually orthochromatic and one print stock. In , a variant of Type F film known as X-back was introduced to counteract the effects of static electricity on the film, which can cause sparking and create odd exposure patterns on the film.

A resin backing was used on the film, which rendered the film too opaque to allow focusing through the back of the film, a common technique for many cameras of that era. The X-back stock was popular on the east coast of the US.

Other manufacturers were established in the s, including American E. Dupont de Nemours in and Belgian Gevaert in Panchromatic film stock became more common.

Created in for use in color film processes such as Kinemacolor , panchromatic was first used in a black-and-white film for exterior sequences in Queen of the Sea and originally available as a special order product. Kodak financed a feature in , shot entirely with panchromatic stock, The Headless Horseman , to promote the film when Kodak introduced it as a standard option.

Panchromatic film stock was expensive and no motion pictures were produced in entirety on it for several years. The cross-cutting between panchromatic and orthochromatic stocks caused continuity problems with costume tones and panchromatic film was often avoided. Orthochromatic film remained dominant until the mids due to Kodak's lack of competition in the panchromatic market. In , Gevaert introduced an orthochromatic stock with limited color sensitivity and a fully panchromatic stock, Pan In , Kodak lowered the price of panchromatic stock to parity with its orthochromatic offering and the panchromatic stock began to overtake the orthochromatic stock's market share within a few years.

Before , commercially successful color processes used special cameras loaded with black-and-white separation stocks rather than color negative. Kinemacolor — , Technicolor processes 1 through 4 — , and Cinecolor used one, two or three strips of monochrome film stock sensitized to certain primary colors or exposed behind color filters in special cameras.

Eastman Kodak introduced their first 35mm color negative stock, Eastman Color Negative film , in A higher quality version in , Eastman Color Negative film , was quickly adopted by Hollywood for color motion picture production, replacing both the expensive three-strip Technicolor process and Monopack. There are several variables in classifying stocks; in practice, one orders raw stock by a code number, based on desired sensitivity to light.

A piece of film consists of a light-sensitive emulsion applied to a tough, transparent base , sometimes attached to anti-halation backing or "rem-jet" layer now only on camera films. Originally the highly flammable cellulose nitrate was used. In the s, film manufacturers introduced " safety film " with a cellulose triacetate plastic base. All amateur film stocks were safety film, but the use of nitrate persisted for professional releases.

Kodak discontinued the manufacture of nitrate base in , and the industry transitioned entirely to safety film in in the United States and by internationally. Since the late s, almost all release prints have used polyester film stock. The emulsion consists of silver halide grains suspended in a gelatin colloid; in the case of color film, there are three layers of silver halide, which are mixed with color couplers and interlayers that filter specific light spectra.

These end up creating yellow, cyan , and magenta layers in the negative after development. Development chemicals applied to an appropriate film can produce either a positive showing the same densities and colors as the subject or negative image with dark highlights, light shadows, and, in principle, complementary colors. The first films were darkened by light: Later films that produce a positive image became known as reversal films ; processed transparent film of this type can be projected onto a screen.

Negative images need to be transferred onto photographic paper or other substrate which reverses the image again, producing a final positive image. Creating a positive image from a negative film can also be done by scanning the negative to create a computer file which can then be reversed by software.

Different emulsions and development processes exist for a variety of image recording possibilities: However, there are also variant types, such as infrared film in black and white or false color ; specialist technical films, such as those used for X-rays ; and obsolete processes, such as orthochromatic film.

Generally, however, the vast majority of stock used today is "normal" visible spectrum color, although "normal" black and white also commands a significant minority percentage.

Film is also classified according to its gauge and the arrangement of its perforations — gauges range from 8 mm to 70 mm or more, while perforations may vary in shape, pitch, and positioning. The film is also distinguished by how it is wound with regard to perforations and base or emulsion side, as well as whether it is packaged around a core, a daylight spool, or within a cartridge.

Depending on the manufacturing processes and camera equipment, lengths can vary anywhere from 25 to feet. A critical property of a stock is its film speed , determined by ASA or its sensitivity to light listed by a measurement on the raw stock which must be chosen with care.

Speed determines the range of lighting conditions under which the film can be shot, and is related to granularity and contrast, which influence the look of the image. The stock manufacturer will usually give an exposure index EI number equal to the ASA which they recommend exposing for. However, factors such as forced or non-standard development such as bleach bypass or cross processing , compensation for filters or shutter angle , as well as intended under- and over-exposure may cause the cinematographer to actually "rate" the stock differently from the EI.

Another important quality of color film stock in particular is its color balance , which is defined by the color temperature at which it accurately records white. Tungsten lighting is defined at K, which is considered "warmer" in tone and shifted towards orange; daylight is defined at K, which is considered "colder" and shifted towards blue. This means that unfiltered tungsten stock will look normal shot under tungsten lights, but blue if shot during daylight.

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