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Buddha body art
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Buddha body art
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Buddha body art

Buddhist art is the artistic practices that are influenced by Buddhism. It includes art media which depict Buddhas , bodhisattvas , and other entities; notable Buddhist figures, both historical and mythical; narrative scenes from the lives of all of these; mandalas and other graphic aids to practice; as well as physical objects associated with Buddhist practice, such as vajras , bells, stupas and Buddhist temple architecture. Buddhist art followed believers as the dharma spread, adapted, and evolved in each new host country.

It developed to the north through Central Asia and into Eastern Asia to form the Northern branch of Buddhist art, and to the east as far as Southeast Asia to form the Southern branch of Buddhist art. In India, Buddhist art flourished and co-developed with Hindu and Jain art, with cave temple complexes built together, each likely influencing the other.

These took the form of votive tablets or friezes , usually in relation to the decoration of stupas. Although India had a long sculptural tradition and a mastery of rich iconography, the Buddha was never represented in human form, but only through Buddhist symbolism. This period may have been aniconic.

Artists were reluctant to depict the Buddha anthropomorphically, and developed sophisticated aniconic symbols to avoid doing so even in narrative scenes where other human figures would appear. This tendency remained as late as the 2nd century CE in the southern parts of India, in the art of the Amaravati School see: Mara's assault on the Buddha. It has been argued that earlier anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha may have been made of wood and may have perished since then.

However, no related archaeological evidence has been found. The frescoes at Sigiriya are said to be even older than the Ajanta Caves paintings. Anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha started to emerge from the 1st century CE in Northern India. Gandharan Buddhist sculpture displays Greek artistic influence, and it has been suggested that the concept of the "man-god" was essentially inspired by Greek mythological culture. Artistically, the Gandharan school of sculpture is said to have contributed wavy hair, drapery covering both shoulders, shoes and sandals, acanthus leaf decorations, nirvana symbols etc.

The art of Mathura tends to be based on a strong Indian tradition, exemplified by the anthropomorphic representation of divinities such as the Yaksas , although in a style rather archaic compared to the later representations of the Buddha. The Mathuran school contributed clothes covering the left shoulder of thin muslin , the wheel on the palm, the lotus seat, etc. Mathura and Gandhara also strongly influenced each other. During their artistic florescence, the two regions were even united politically under the Kushans , both being capitals of the empire.

It is still a matter of debate whether the anthropomorphic representations of Buddha was essentially a result of a local evolution of Buddhist art at Mathura, or a consequence of Greek cultural influence in Gandhara through the Greco-Buddhist syncretism.

This iconic art was characterized from the start by a realistic idealism, combining realistic human features, proportions, attitudes and attributes, together with a sense of perfection and serenity reaching to the divine. This expression of the Buddha as both man and God became the iconographic canon for subsequent Buddhist art.

It is interesting to note that the Buddha is an extensively used subject in plastic arts such as sculpture, paintings and literature, but not in music and dance. Buddhist art continued to develop in India for a few more centuries. The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved during the Gupta period 4th to 6th century CE to reach a very high fineness of execution and delicacy in the modeling. The art of the Gupta school was extremely influential almost everywhere in the rest of Asia.

At the end of the 12th century CE, Buddhism in its full glory came to be preserved only in the Himalayan regions in India. These areas, helped by their location, were in greater contact with Tibet and China - for example the art and traditions of Ladakh bear the stamp of Tibetan and Chinese influence.

As Buddhism expanded outside of India from the 1st century CE, its original artistic package blended with other artistic influences, leading to a progressive differentiation among the countries adopting the faith. However, extensive contacts started in the 2nd century CE, probably as a consequence of the expansion of the Kushan Empire into the Chinese territory of the Tarim Basin , with the missionary efforts of a great number of Central Asian Buddhist monks to Chinese lands.

The first missionaries and translators of Buddhists scriptures into Chinese , such as Lokaksema , were either Parthian , Kushan , Sogdian or Kuchean. Central Asian missionary efforts along the Silk Road were accompanied by a flux of artistic influences, visible in the development of Serindian art from the 2nd through the 11th century in the Tarim Basin, modern Xinjiang.

Serindian art often derives from the Greco-Buddhist art of the Gandhara district of what is now Pakistan , combining Indian, Greek and Roman influences. Silk Road Greco-Buddhist artistic influences can be found as far as Japan to this day, in architectural motifs, Buddhist imagery, and a select few representations of Japanese gods.

Northern Buddhist art thus tends to be characterized by a very rich and syncretic Buddhist pantheon, with a multitude of images of the various buddhas , bodhisattvas, and heavenly beings devas.

Buddhist art in Afghanistan old Bactria persisted for several centuries until the spread of Islam in the 7th century. It is exemplified by the Buddhas of Bamyan.

Other sculptures, in stucco , schist or clay , display very strong blending of Indian post- Gupta mannerism and Classical influence, Hellenistic or possibly even Greco-Roman. Although Islamic rule was somewhat tolerant of other religions " of the Book ", it showed little tolerance for Buddhism, which was perceived as a religion depending on " idolatry ".

Human figurative art forms also being prohibited under Islam, Buddhist art suffered numerous attacks, which culminated with the systematic destructions by the Taliban regime. The Buddhas of Bamyan, the sculptures of Hadda , and many of the remaining artifacts at the Afghanistan museum have been destroyed. The multiple conflicts since the s also have led to a systematic pillage of archaeological sites apparently in the hope of reselling in the international market what artifacts could be found.

Central Asia long played the role of a meeting place between China, India and Persia. Thereafter, the expansion of Buddhism to the North led to the formation of Buddhist communities and even Buddhist kingdoms in the oasis of Central Asia.

Some Silk Road cities consisted almost entirely of Buddhist stupas and monasteries, and it seems that one of their main objectives was to welcome and service travelers between East and West. The eastern part of Central Asia Chinese Turkestan Tarim Basin , Xinjiang in particular has revealed an extremely rich Serindian art wall paintings and reliefs in numerous caves, portable paintings on canvas, sculpture, ritual objects , displaying multiple influences from Indian and Hellenistic cultures.

Works of art reminiscent of the Gandharan style, as well as scriptures in the Gandhari script Kharoshti have been found. These influences were rapidly absorbed however by the vigorous Chinese culture, and a strongly Chinese particularism develops from that point. Buddhism arrived in China around the 1st century CE, and introduced new types of art into China, particularly in the area of statuary. Receiving this distant religion, strong Chinese traits were incorporated into Buddhist art.

In the 5th to 6th centuries, the Northern Dynasties developed rather symbolic and abstract modes of representation, with schematic lines. Their style is also said to be solemn and majestic. The lack of corporeality of this art, and its distance from the original Buddhist objective of expressing the pure ideal of enlightenment in an accessible and realistic manner, progressively led to a change towards more naturalism and realism, leading to the expression of Tang Buddhist art.

Following a transition under the Sui Dynasty , Buddhist sculpture of the Tang evolved towards a markedly lifelike expression. Because of the dynasty's openness to foreign influences, and renewed exchanges with Indian culture due to the numerous travels of Chinese Buddhist monks to India, Tang dynasty Buddhist sculpture assumed a rather classical form, inspired by the Indian art of the Gupta period.

During that time, the Tang capital of Chang'an today's Xi'an became an important center for Buddhism. However, foreign influences came to be negatively perceived in China towards the end of the Tang dynasty. In the year , the Tang emperor Wuzong outlawed all "foreign" religions including Christian Nestorianism , Zoroastrianism and Buddhism in order to support the indigenous religion, Taoism.

He confiscated Buddhist possessions, and forced the faith to go underground, therefore affecting the development of the religion and its arts in China. The rise of Neo-Confucianism under Zhu Xi in the twelfth century resulted in considerable criticism of the monk-painters.

Connected as they were with the then-unpopular school of Chan Buddhism, their paintings were discarded and ignored. Some paintings survived after being transported to Japan by visiting Zen monks, but the school of Chan painting gradually diminished. During the Qing Dynasty, Manchu emperors supported Buddhist practices for a range of political and personal reasons.

The Shunzhi Emperor was a devotee of Chan Buddhism, while his successor, the Kangxi Emperor promoted Tibetan Buddhism , claiming to be the human embodiment of the bodhisattva Manjusri. He commissioned a vast number of religious works in the Tibetan style, many of which depicted him in various sacred guises. Works of art produced during this period are characterized by a unique fusion of Tibetan and Chinese artistic approaches.

They combine a characteristically Tibetan attention to iconographic detail with Chinese-inspired decorative elements. Inscriptions are often written in Chinese, Manchu, Tibetan, Mongolian and Sanskrit, while paintings are frequently rendered in vibrant colors. Additionally, the Qianlong Emperor initiated a number of large-scale construction projects; in he rededicated the Yonghe Temple as Beijing's main Tibetan Buddhist monastery, donating a number of valuable religious paintings, sculptures, textiles and inscriptions to the temple.

After the Qianlong Emperor 's abdication in , the popularity of Tibetan Buddhism at the Qing court declined. The motives behind the Qing emperors' promotion of Tibetan Buddhism have been interpreted as a calculated act of political manipulation, and a means of forging ties between Manchu, Mongolian, and Tibetan communities, though this has been challenged by recent scholarship.

The popularization of Buddhism in China has made the country home to one of the richest collections of Buddhist arts in the world. The Leshan Giant Buddha , carved out of a hillside in the 8th century during the Tang Dynasty and looking down on the confluence of three rivers, is still the largest stone Buddha statue in the world.

Korean Buddhist art generally reflects an interaction between other Buddhist influences and a strongly original Korean culture. Additionally, the art of the steppes, particularly Siberian and Scythian influences, are evident in early Korean Buddhist art based on the excavation of artifacts and burial goods such as Silla royal crowns , belt buckles, daggers, and comma-shaped gogok.

Although many other influences were strong, Korean Buddhist art, "bespeaks a sobriety, taste for the right tone, a sense of abstraction but also of colours that curiously enough are in line with contemporary taste" Pierre Cambon, Arts asiatiques- Guimet'. Particularly important in the transmission of sophisticated art styles to the Korean kingdoms was the art of the "barbarian" Tuoba, a clan of non-Han Chinese Xianbei people who established the Northern Wei Dynasty in China in The Northern Wei style was particularly influential in the art of the Goguryeo and Baekje.

Baekje artisans later transmitted this style along with Southern Dynasty elements and distinct Korean elements to Japan. Korean artisans were highly selective of the styles they incorporated and combined different regional styles together to create a specific Korean Buddhist art style. While Goguryeo Buddhist art exhibited vitality and mobility akin with Northern Wei prototypes, the Baekje Kingdom was also in close contact with the Southern Dynasties of China and this close diplomatic contact is exemplified in the gentle and proportional sculpture of the Baekje, epitomized by Baekje sculpture exhibiting the fathomless smile known to art historians as the Baekje smile.

Particularly, the semi-seated Maitreya form was adapted into a highly developed Korean style which was transmitted to Japan as evidenced by the Koryu-ji Miroku Bosatsu and the Chugu-ji Siddhartha statues. Although many historians portray Korea as a mere transmitter of Buddhism, the Three Kingdoms, and particularly Baekje, were instrumental as active agents in the introduction and formation of a Buddhist tradition in Japan in or During the Unified Silla period, East Asia was particularly stable with China and Korea both enjoying unified governments.

Early Unified Silla art combined Silla styles and Baekje styles. Korean Buddhist art was also influenced by new Tang Dynasty styles as evidenced by a new popular Buddhist motif with full-faced Buddha sculptures. Tang China was the cross roads of East, Central, and South Asia and so the Buddhist art of this time period exhibit the so-called international style. State-sponsored Buddhist art flourished during this period, the epitome of which is the Seokguram Grotto.

The fall of the Unified Silla Dynasty and the establishment of the Goryeo Dynasty in indicates a new period of Korean Buddhist art. The Goryeo kings also lavishly sponsored Buddhism and Buddhist art flourished, especially Buddhist paintings and illuminated sutras written in gold and silver ink.

The crowning achievement of this period is the carving of approximately 80, woodblocks of the Tripitaka Koreana which was done twice. The Joseon Dynasty actively suppressed Buddhism beginning in and Buddhist temples and art production subsequently decline in quality in quantity although beginning in , Buddhist art does continue to be produced. The Japanese discovered Buddhism in the 6th century when missionary monks travelled to the islands together with numerous scriptures and works of art.

The cultural contact between Indian Dharmic civilization and Japan through the adoption of Buddhist ideas and aesthetic has contributed to the development of a national cultural order in the subsequent century.

Being geographically at the end of the Silk Road , Japan was able to preserve many aspects of Buddhism at the very time it was disappearing in India, and being suppressed in Central Asia and China. Countless paintings and sculptures were made, often under governmental sponsorship. Indian, Hellenistic, Chinese and Korean artistic influences blended into an original style characterized by realism and gracefulness.

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